Antony, through the results of this campaign, found himself suddenly
raised from the position of a disgraced and homeless fugitive to that of
one of the most wealthy and renowned, and, consequently, one of the most
powerful personages in Rome. The great civil war broke out about this
time between Caesar and Pompey. Antony espoused the cause of Caesar.

In the mean time, while the civil war between Caesar and Pompey was
raging, Ptolemy succeeded in maintaining his seat on the throne, by the
aid of the Roman soldiers whom Antony and Gabinius had left him, for
about three years. When he found himself drawing toward the close of
life, the question arose to his mind to whom he should leave his
kingdom. Cleopatra was the oldest child, and she was a princess of great
promise, both in respect to mental endowments and personal charms. Her
brothers were considerably younger than she. The claim of a son, though
younger, seemed to be naturally stronger than that of a daughter; but
the commanding talents and rising influence of Cleopatra appeared to
make it doubtful whether it would be safe to pass her by. The father
settled the question in the way in which such difficulties were usually
surmounted in the Ptolemy family. He ordained that Cleopatra should
marry the oldest of her brothers, and that they two should jointly
occupy the throne. Adhering also, still, to the idea of the alliance of
Egypt with Rome, which had been the leading principle of the whole
policy of his reign, he solemnly committed the execution of his will and
the guardianship of his children, by a provision of the instrument
itself, to the Roman Senate. The Senate accepted the appointment, and
appointed Pompey as the agent, on their part, to perform the duties of
the trust. The attention of Pompey was, immediately after that time, too
much engrossed by the civil war waged between himself, and Caesar, to
take any active steps in respect to the duties of his appointment. It
seemed, however, that none were necessary, for all parties in Alexandria
appeared disposed, after the death of the king, to acquiesce in the
arrangements which he had made, and to join in carrying them into
effect. Cleopatra was married to her brother--yet, it is true, only a
boy. He was about ten years old. She was herself about eighteen. They
were both too young to govern; they could only reign. The affairs of the
kingdom were, accordingly, conducted by two ministers whom their father
had designated. These ministers were Pothinus, a eunuch, who was a sort
of secretary of state, and Achillas, the commander-in-chief of the
armies.

[...]
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