A triumph, according to the usages of the ancient Romans, was a grand
celebration decreed by the Senate to great military commanders of the
highest rank, when they returned from distant campaigns in which they
had made great conquests or gained extraordinary victories. Caesar
concentrated all his triumphs into one. They were celebrated on his
return to Rome for the last time, after having completed the conquest of
the world. The processions of this triumph occupied four days. In fact,
there were four triumphs, one on each day for the four days. The wars
and conquests which these ovations were intended to celebrate were those
of Gaul, of Egypt, of Asia, and of Africa; and the processions on the
several days consisted of endless trains of prisoners, trophies, arms,
banners, pictures, images, convoys of wagons loaded with plunder,
captive princes and princesses, animals wild and tame, and every thing
else which the conqueror had been able to bring home with him from his
campaigns, to excite the curiosity or the admiration of the people of
the city and illustrate the magnitude of his exploits. Of course, the
Roman generals, when engaged in distant foreign wars, were ambitious of
bringing back as many distinguished captives and as much public plunder
as they were able to obtain, in order to add to the variety and splendor
of the triumphal procession by which their victories were to be honored
on their return. It was with this view that Caesar brought ArsinoŽ from
Egypt; and he had retained her as his captive at Rome until his
conquests were completed and the time for his triumph arrived. She, of
course, formed a part of the triumphal train on the _Egyptian_ day. She
walked immediately before the chariot in which Caesar rode. She was in
chains, like any other captive, though her chains in honor of her lofty
rank, were made of gold.

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